Accelerating Workforce Training: Introducing the CTA in E/Affect Initiative


Discover a future in Naturalistic Decision Making

The world needs better decison makers

Uncertain times call for certain measures. Naturalistic Decision Making is an interdisciplinary framework that can be applied in virtually any field to enable more efficient, consistent and successful decision making.


At the core, NDM is about understanding and optimizing how people take action under stressful and unpredictable circumstances.

The NDM skillset

As an NDM student, you’ll learn how to study, represent, and systematize expertise in organizational settings.


Here are some of the knowledge, skills and methods you’ll put into practice:


The level of explanation about human cognition that has been derived from nearly 40 years of studying professionals at work. Sensemaking, mental models, recognition-primed decisions – these are the concepts at the heart of NDM.

Cognitive Systems Engineering

Building systems to enable and improve human work entails starting with an understanding of that work as it is performed, and recognizing the prime role of the human.

Cognitive Task Analysis

A set of proven methods for uncovering the nature of expertise in any field of practice, CTA is the premier toolbox for NDM practitioners — and new methods are continuously emerging.

Accelerating Expertise

Bringing the NDM perspective to training and learning means designing and delivering experiences to that support rapid achievement of ever-higher levels of proficiency.

Related Professions

  • Operational decision-making
  • Computer and robotic systems engineering
  • Coaching and training
  • HR and talent development
  • Expertise management
  • Human factors and ergonomics
  • Consumer product design
  • Usability, UX, and design
  • Modeling and simulation
  • Organizational learning
  • R&D and innovation
  • Safety and resilience
  • Instructional design
  • Cognitive research
  • Leadership

Career Opportunities

NDM skills offer a competitive advantage in many job roles.


With the rise in automation and increased demand for cognitively complex human labor, organizations need trained NDM practitioners now more than ever.

Consider pursuing an NDM career

Better decision making leads to safer, smarter, wealthier, and happier teams and individuals—in all areas of society.

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